黑龙江学位英语考试常用语法考点

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黑龙江学位英语考试常用语法考点

倒装句可分为全部倒装和部分倒装两种:

一、全部倒装

谓语动词提前至主语之前为全部倒装,如:Out came his guest.On the hill stood a little cottage that contained heaps of hay.There lived an elderly lady whose husband died long ago.

二、部分倒装

助动词或情态动词提至主语之前,谓语动词位置不变,即为部分倒装,如:

Neither could he see through your plan.

So little did I know about him that I was easily taken in by his words.

Doesn’t her invitation appeal to you?

第一节否定词提前倒装

否定词用于句首时,句子应进行部分倒装

否定词常用的有:

Not only…(but also),Not until(直到…..才),No sooner….(than)(一…..就)

Never/Rarely/Seldom Hardly/Scarcely…(when)

Few/LittleNeither/Nor(也不)Nwhere At no time Under no circumstances(决不)

On no account(决不)In no way

其中not only,no sooner,hardly,scarcely分别和but(also),than,when搭配使用,需注意:后一组词之后的部分不进行倒装,只有否定词之后的部分倒装

如:Hardly had I arrived home when it began to rain.

Not only was he able to enter the final round of the contest,but hecame out first as well.

No sooner had I got any chance to speak than the clerk slammed the door in my face.

Seldom does he travel about.

Under no circumstances should you betray your own country.

此类倒装句一般出现在填空题中,需填入的是倒装部分,只要在句首见到上述的词,就应条件反射的想到用倒装句

第二节介词、分词词组提前倒装

当句子没有宾语,且主语偏长时,往往将句中作状语的介词短语或作表语的形容词短语或作表语的分词短语提至句首,引起主谓的全部倒装

如:In the middle of the river floated the cluster of plants that shehad cast.

Characteristic of an anarchist was her strong opposition to the government,which she had blamed for all the

social injustices.

Lying on the grassland is a pretty girl in her early twenties.

容易混淆的词

hard(努力,副词)-hardly(几乎不,副词)

close(接近,形容词)-closely(接近,副词)

near(接近,形容词)-nearly(几乎,副词),nearby(adj.邻近的)

most(大多数的,形容词)-mostly(主要地,大部分副词)

late(迟、晚,形容词)-lately(最近,副词),later(adv.稍后的)

high(高的,形容词)-highly(adv.非常,大大的)

另外:friendly(友好的),lovely(可爱的、有趣的),尽管词尾有ly,但是都是形容词作主语:不定式短语可作主语如:To see is to believe(百闻不如一见)

To work hard should be your major concern.

注意:由于英文不习惯句子主语过长,不定式主语常被形式主语it所代替(详见第十七章)

例如上面第二句可以变为:It should be your major concern to work hard.

又如:It is very nice of you to help me

不定式常接在名词之后作定语,如:something to read,nothing to do,anything to declare,

a lot to complain of,the right person to talk to,etc.

由上述例子不难看出不定式和被修饰词间有动宾关系,因此不及物动词之后必须加上相

搭配的介词(例如上面的complain+of,talk+to)不定式定语还可表示将来的含义,如:in the years to follow,the meeting to be held in June

独立主格的主语和句子主语不一致

如:(With)His mouth filled with water,he couldn’t utter a word.(独立主格)对于分词来讲其逻辑主语必须和句子的主语保持一致:Filling his mouth with water,he couldn’t utter a word.

 

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